Colour reproduction is a very complex process, there are many different colour reproduction industries, utilising
different media from one to another, although within some industries there may well be multiple media used...
In the 1993, the International Color Consortium was formed eight industry vendors in order to create a universal
color management system that would function transparently across all operating systems and software packages :
the ICC Profiles.
ICC Profiles intent is to provide a mechanism for defining the colour of image data in a way that makes it possible
to exchange images between systems, while retaining any colour requirements imposed on the image. An ICC profile provides
a number of colour transformations that define the colour expected from the encoded data of the digital image, in an open format.
More information on ICC can found here: International Color Consortium